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quiver/['kwivə]/ n.震动, 颤抖, 箭袋, 箭袋中的箭 vi.颤抖, 振动,...

自考英语(二)

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Text A What Is a Decision ?





I.课文内容简介

  决策的目的是制定和实现组织目标。作决策的原因是有问题存在、目标和目的不正确、或者有?#25345;?#19996;西防碍目标或目的的实现。作决策的过程对管理人员来说至关重要。决策者必须具备从多个可供选择的可能性中确定最佳选择的手段。而多种目标的顺序和重要性也部分地基于决策者的价值观。今天所作的决策可能会对将来产生深远的影响。因此,有经验的管理者能从当前决策看到将来的效果。

  段落大意:课文分成三部分

  第一、二段:决策的定义 The definition of decision

  第三、四段:作决策的一般过程 The general process of making a decision

  第五至九段:在管理层次上,多种因素影响决策的制定 Various factors influencing decision making at the managerial level

  

  II.New Words

  organizational a. 组织上的

  goal n. 目的,目标

  objective n./a. 目标,目的/客观的,真实的

  accomplish vt. 完成(任务等)

  predict vt./vi. 预言;预示

  accompany vt. 伴随,陪同

  implement vt. 实现;完成

  constraint n. 强制;强制因素

  precedent n. 先例,前例

  simplify vt. 简化

  tendency n. 趋势,倾向

  managerial a. 经理的,管理人的

  maker n. 制造者;制造商

  achievement n. 完成,达到

  attain vt. 达到;完成

  optimal a. 最适宜的,最理想的

  suboptimization n. 局部最优化

  trade-off n. 权衡;物物交换

  argue vt./vi. 争辩,争论

  budget n./vt. 预算

  scheme n./vt.?#36873;?编入预算

  define vt. 解释,给…下定义

  multiple a./n.多样的,复合的/倍数

  profitability n. 赚钱,获利

  correctness n. 正确,正确性

  unintended a. 非计划中的,非故意的

  ongoing a. 进行中的,非故意的

  entity n. 存在,实体

  skilled a. 熟练的;有技能的

  in the way 挡路、碍事

  to make a guess at 猜测

  and the like 等等,诸如此类

  to seek to ?#38750;螅?#20105;取

  in part 部分地,在?#25345;?#31243;度上

  point of view 观点

  词汇精讲

  1.goal n. 目标,进球,球门 ( 同义词:aim ,end , purpose,objective)

  Her goal is a place at university . 她的目标是在大学任教。

  2.objective : n./a. 目的;目标(尤指较长远的目标);宗旨/客观的,如实的

  派生词:object n. 物体

  反义词:subjective n./a. 主语;主观事物;/ 主观的,

  用法: Her objective is to get a college education. 她的目标是接受大学教育。

  If you don't work hard, you'll never achieve your objectives.

  假如你不努力工作,你将永远达不到目的。Achieve表示较难达到的目标。

  It is an objective report. 这是一篇如实的报道。

  3.accomplish v. 完成(任务)等

  The students accomplished the task in less than ten minutes .

  学生们在不到10?#31181;?#20869;完成了任务。

  4.predict : v 预言,预示, 预告

  同义词:forecast v. 预测,预报

  It's hard to predict when it will happen . 很?#35328;?#35265;这件事?#38382;?#21457;生。

  5.accompany : v. 伴随,陪同

  The lonely old man is accompanied by his dog. 这位孤独的老人让他的狗做伴。

  All orders must be accompanied with cash. 所有的订货单必须随付现金。

  派生词: company n. 公司; v. 陪伴

  6.implement v. 实现,实施,履?#26657;?#35834;言)等

  The committee's suggestions will be implemented immediately.

  委员会的意见将立即贯彻执?#23567;?br>
  The changes to the national health system will be implemented next year。

  对全国医疗体系的改革将在明年进?#23567;?br>
  7.constraint n. 限制, 约束

  They told the truth but only under constraint. Constraint on the rules of grammer

  他们说了实话但是有所保留(是?#40644;?#30340;)。 语法规则的限制(约束)

  8.tendency : n. 趋势,倾向

  There is a growing tendency for people to work at home instead of in offices.

  人们在家里而不是在办公室里工作的趋势?#25214;?#22686;长。

  派生词:tend v. 趋向,倾向 用法:tend to do sth.

  He tends to get angry when people disagree with him .

  当人们不同意他的意见时,他很容易生气。

  9.achievement n. 完成,成就,

  An Olympic silver medal is a remarkable achievement for one so young .

  对一个如?#22235;?#36731;的人来说,获得奥运会银牌是个了?#40644;?#30340;成就。

  派生词:achieve v. 完成,做到,达到(目的),实现,获得

  He will never achieve his objectives if he doesn't work hard .

  如果他不努力,将会永远达不到目的。

  10.attain : v. 达到?#25442;?#24471; (长期努力后而获得)同义词:obtain, get

  用法: She has made up her mind to attain her goal in life. 她下定决心要达到生活中的目标。

  The apple tree has attained to a great height. 苹果树已长得很高了。

  11.optimal adj 最?#35757;?br>
  The sailors are waiting for optimal weather conditions before taking off .船员们正在等待出航的最佳天气条件。

  12.argue : vt./vi. 争辩,争论,辩论

  用法:

  作不及物动词用时,后边可以接with, about 或over(就…争论),for (赞成)或against (反对)

  She is always ready to argue over the smallest issues. 她总喜欢为极小的问题进行争论。

  He often argues philosophy with James. 他常和?#26448;?#26031;讨论哲学。

  He argued for immediate action . 他主张立即行动。

  They argued against such a policy. 他们反对这种政策。

  作及物动词时,表示”说服、用辩论证明“的意思

  I argued him out going on such a dangerous journey. 我说服他不做这样危险的旅?#23567;?

  He argued that man was descended from apes. 他论证人类的祖先是猿。

  13.scheme n 计划 方案

  He has got a crazy scheme for getting rich before he is 20 .

  他制定了一个在20岁之前发财的疯狂计划。

  14.multiple adj 多样的 复合的

  What the person does next is the result of the multiple influences to which they have been exposed .

  一个人下一步会做什?#35789;?#20182;受到的多种影响的结果。

  15.ongoing adj 进行中的,前进的

  No agreement has yet been reached and the negotiations one still ongoing .

  目前还没?#20889;?#25104;任何协议,谈判仍在进?#23567;?br>
  16.entity n 存在 实体

  He regarded the north of the country as a separate cultural entity .

  他把这个国家的北方看成一个单独的文化实体。

  17.skilled adj 熟练的,有技能的

  My mother is very skilled at /in dress-making .

  我母亲非常擅长做?#36335;?br>
  Phrases and Expressions

  1.(stand, get, be ) in the way 碍事 ,挡道的;妨碍人的

  If you are not going to help, at least don't get in the way! 如果你不愿帮忙,至少别妨碍?#24605;搖?

  The chair is in the way, please move it away. 这把椅子挡着路,请把它移开。

  相关短语:

  in a way 在?#25345;?#31243;度上;在某些方面; 从某一点上看

  in no way 决不;一点也不;

  in the way of 按照; 就…. 而言

  by way of 取道,经由

  by the way 顺便问一下

  2.to make a guess at 猜测

  You might have been able to make a guess at who she was. 你本来能够猜到她是谁。

  Can you make a guess at the price ? 你猜得出价钱吗?

  3.to seek to(inf) 寻求,争取

  Power stations are seeking to reduce their use of oil .

  发电站正在设法减少石油的使用

  4.in part : 部分地;有些部分;在?#25345;?#31243;度上

  This was in part due to financial difficulties. 部分是由于财政困?#36873;?br>
  The responsibility was in part because of me. 部分责任在我。

  5.point of view 视点,视角

  The book looks at college life from a student's point of view.

  这本书从一个学生的视角来看大学生活。

  6.to vary from …to … ?#21360;?#21040;…不同,因… 而异

  Salary scales vary from state to state.

  工资级别因州而异。

  7.contribute … to ?#36873;?贡献给….

  We'll contribute ourselves to this career after we graduate . 我们毕业后将为此事?#24213;?#36129;献。

  contribute to 导致

  Smoking is the main factor contributing to lung cancer. 吸烟是导?#36335;?#30284;的主要因素。

  8.be beneficial to 对… 有利

  Jogging is beneficial to our health. 慢跑有利于我们的健康。

  Reciting passages is beneficial to improving oral English.

  朗读(背?#26657;?#30701;文段落对提高英语口语有利。

  III.课文精讲

  第一部分

  Para.1

  A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists, goals or objectives are wrong, or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.

  1.made from among alternative courses of action 是过去分词短语作定语

  courses of action 行动方针

  that are available 是定语从句,修饰概念短语”行动方针“

  2.The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists, goals or objectives are wrong, or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.

  此句是由that引导的表语从句,表语从句由a problem exist; goals of objectives are wrong;

  及something is standing in the way of accomplishing them三个并列句构成。

  The reason for … is that 是一个常用的句?#21360;?#20363;: The reason for canceling the travel is that

  they lack of money. 取消旅行的原因是他们手头缺钱。

  The reason why … 是另外一个常用的句?#21360;?#20363;:There are 3 reasons why they are unwilling to discuss insurance .他们不愿意谈论保险的原因有三个。

  Para.2

  Thus the decision-making process is fundamental to management. Almost everything a manager does involves decisions, indeed, some suggest that the management process is decision making. Although managers cannot predict the future, many of their decisions require that they consider possible future events. Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance, but since uncertainty is always there, risk accompanies decisions. Sometimes the consequences of a poor decision are slight; at other times they are serious.

  3.a manager does是省略that的定语从句,修饰先行词everything

  当先行词为everything, something, anything, nothing等?#27426;?#20195;词时定语从句引导词不可用which, 此句的后半部分 some suggest that ... 是宾语从句suggest v. 认为,提出,建议(其后的宾语从句多用于虚拟语气)

  4.although conj.”虽然,尽管“引导让步状语从句

  例如:Although my car is very old,it still runs very well .

  虽然我的汽车很旧,但是仍然跑得很好。

  require vt. 要求,需要 后边由that引导一个宾语从句

  5.Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance, but since uncertainty is always there, risk accompanies decisions.

  make a best guess at 作出最佳猜测,at 表示动作或行为的方向和目标,如:look at (看) ,aim at (瞄准,目的是),throw (a stone) at (向…掷石头),shoot at (射击),laugh at (嘲笑)

  本句中what the future will be 是一个介词宾语从句,(作介词at 的宾语);

  to leave sth. to chance ”凭运气,听任命运的安排,听其自然发展“

  ”as + 形容词(或副词)+ as possible“意思是?#26412;?#21487;能地…; 尽量“。

  as little as possible 尽可能少

  I tried to be as friendly as possible. 我尽量地表示友好。

  Come as quickly as possible. 尽快来。

  since uncertainty is always there 是一个原因状语从句。

  risk accompanies decisions .风险伴随着决策

  6.sometimes … at other times 有时… ,而有时则 …

  a poor decision 一个不良决策

  第二部分

  Para.3

  Choice is the opportunity to select among alternatives. If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made. Decision making is the process of choosing, and many decisions have a broad range of choice. For example, a student may be able to choose among a number of different courses in order to implement the decision to obtain a college degree. For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. These constraints exist at all levels of the organization.

  7.”选择“三个词的区别:

  alternative adj.两者或多于两者选一个,供选择的,n.替代物

  choice 选自?#21512;?#27426;的,挑出,选出

  select 选出最好的,筛选、精选

  8.由 if 引导的条件状语从句, 主句中的?#27426;?#24335;?#27426;?#24577; to be made作定语, 修饰decision

  9.range n. ?#27573;?a broad range of choice 一个很广的选择?#27573;?br>
  10.For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like.

  本句中based on 是一个过去分词作定语修饰constraints.

  be based on 表示"建立在…基础上

  例:The book is based on a true story. 这本书是以一个真实的?#36866;?#20026;依据的。

  He was the first to draw a map that was based on all available knowledge, rather than guess or imagination. 他第一个画出以当时所有的知识为基础的地图,而不是基于猜测和想象。

  and the like 意思是“等等 (之类的东西)”。

  例:He studied painting, music, English and the like. 他学习了绘画、音乐、英语等等。

  11.at all levels “在各个层次”

  Para.4

  Alternatives are the possible courses of action from which choices can be made. If there are no alternatives, there is no choice and, therefore, no decision. If no alternatives are seen, often it means that a thorough job of examining the problems has not been done. For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion; this is their way of simplifying complex problems. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.

  12.from which 引?#32423;?#35821;从句,修饰 courses of action 行动方针

  13.a thorough job of examining 一个彻底的考察工作

  a thorough job是主语,of examining the problems 修饰job,has not been done是句子的谓语。

  thorough a. 彻底的

  through prep. 通过,穿过

  though conj. 虽然,尽管 ( 同although )

  thought n. 思想

  14.For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion :

  either /or 意思是“非?#24605;?#24444;;二者择一”。

  例:We fight, or we don't -- it's an either/or decision.

  我们战斗或不战斗-这是二者择一的决定。

  第三部分

  Para.5

  At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.

  15.At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.

  在as well as 结构?#26657;?#24378;调前者 limiting alternatives ,不强调后者

  译为:作决策包括限定选择和识别选择,或者译成:不仅包括识别选择还要包括限定选择(除了包括识别选择外还有限定选择)

  practically ad. 实际上,事实上(在口语中译为,几乎,简?#20445;?#22312;本文中是几乎的意思。例如:几乎是不可能practically impossible

  Para.6

  Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best - that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach. Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization. Called suboptimization, this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function. For example, the marketing manager may argue effectively for an increased advertising budget. In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.

  16.An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach.

  一个省略that或which的定语从句,修饰a state of affairs "事物的状态,?#32511;?quot;

  to seek to do sth. ?#38750;螅?#20105;取,寻求,设法(去做某事)

  17.Because individuals frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision.

  本句?#26657;琤ecause 引导了原因状语从句;在主句?#26657;瑆ho makes the decision 是作depend on 的介词宾语从句。

  18.Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization.

  两个that引导的都是定语从句,修饰decisions

  less than 在此做状语,表示否定的含义, less than optimal "不太理想"

  例如:This job is less than perfect. 这份工作不十分理想(完美)。

  19.this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function.

  that引?#32423;?#35821;从句,修饰trade-off "权衡"

  increases 和 decreases 是定语从句的并列谓语

  Para.7

  These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously. Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department. Different managers define the same problem in differentterms. When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on.

  20.These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously.

  Because 引导的原因状语从句中,有一个that引导的定语从句,修饰many objectives

  21.Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary form person to person and from department to department.

  vary from … to … 表示各不相同的意思。

  例:The percentage varies from person to person. (税收的) 比例因人而异。

  22.When presented with a common case

  presented with 面对

  过去分词短语前面加上when作时间状语。

  为了表示明确的时间或条件,有?#32972;?#22312;分词前面加上when, while, even if , even though , unless 等连词作时间、条件、让步等状语。 (详见语法要点)

  Para.8

  The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based, in part, on the values of the decision maker. Such values are personal; they are hard to understand, even by the individual, because they are so dynamic and complex. In many business situations different people's values about acceptable degrees of risk and profitability cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions.

  23.The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based, in part, on the values of the decision maker.

  be based on 基于,取决于

  in part 部分地,在?#25345;?#31243;度上

  对于多项目标的排序和重要性,部分地基于决策者的价值观。

  24.different people's values about acceptable degrees of risk and profitability cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions.

  两个about都是介词短语作定语,修饰前边的名词

  不同人关于风险和?#25214;?#21487;接受程度的价值观,导致了对于决策正确性的不同意见。

  Para.9

  People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon. But from a systems point of view, problems have multiple causes, and decisions have intended and unintended consequences. An organization is an ongoing entity, and a decision made today may have consequences far into the future. Thus the skilled manager looks toward the future consequences of current decisions.

  25.People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon

  assume vt. 认为,假定,设想 that 引导宾语从句

  26.An organization is an ongoing entity, and a decision made today may have consequences far into the future.

  an ongoing entity "一个发展中的实体,一个运作中的单位"

  made today 过去分词短语作定语,"今天作出的决策"

  far into the future 形容词短语作定语,"对将来有深远的影响"

  27.Thus the skilled manager looks toward the future consequences of current decisions.

  the skilled manager "一个干练的管理者,一个有经验的管理者"

  current a. 当前的,现时的 n. 流,水流,电流,气流

  一个干练的管理者可以从当今决策看到未来的结果。

  附:重点句

  1.The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists, goals or objectives are wrong, or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them. 三个表语从句并列 (第一段)

  2.Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance, but since uncertainty is always there, risk accompanies decisions. 主从复合句(第二段)

  3.For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. (第三段)

  4.For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion; (第四段)

  5.Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. 主从复合句(第六段)

  6.Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger orgnization. (第六段)

  7.Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department. (第七段)

  8.When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on. (第七段)
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1999年1月四级听力03
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高考听力模拟3906-07
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2nd Kings 列王纪下15
unit25 Four Rules for a Successful Marriage 成功婚姻的四大准则
FLASH英语-26:May I leave early
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Matt Redman - 10,000 Reasons (Bless the Lord)(最佳福音、当代基督教音乐演绎)
下雪《爱你不是两三天》韩文版
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Kakuna Matata(狮子王1)插曲
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WIND BENEATH MY WINGS(BETTE MIDLER)
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